A corn is a build-up of hard skin near a bony area of a toe or between toes. Corns may be the result of pressure from shoes that rub against the toes or cause friction between the toes. Proper care is necessary if you have a corn.
A bunion is a localized painful swelling at the base of the big toe (the great toe). The joint is enlarged (due to new bone formation) and the toe is often misaligned. It is frequently associated with inflammation. It can be related to inflammation of the nearby bursa (bursitis) or degenerative joint disease (osteoarthritis).
Bunions most commonly affect women. Ballet dancers are prime candidates for bunions. Tight-fitting shoes and high heels can contribute to bunions.
The treatment of bunions includes rest, a change in shoes, foot supports, medications or surgery.
Wrinkles: Wrinkles are a by-product of the aging process. With age, skin cells divide more slowly, and the inner layer, called the dermis, begins to thin. The network of elastin (the protein which causes skin to stretch) and collagen fibers (the major structural proteins in the skin), which support the outer layer, loosen and unravel, causing depressions on the surface. With aging, skin also loses its elasticity, is less able to retain moisture, oil-secreting glands are less efficient and the skin is slower to heal. All of these contribute to the development of wrinkles.
A milium is a white papule, 1–2 mm in size, composed of laminated, keratinous material and situated as a solid cyst in a pilosebaceous follicle. Milia are fairly common on the brow, glabella, and nose in newborn infants and in such infants tend to disappear quickly and spontaneously. There may be few or many, and they may develop later in infancy, in childhood, and in adolescence. In older children and adolescents, they tend to 6 Color Atlas of Pediatric Dermatology persist, may precede acne or be associated with incipient acne and commonly develop on or around the eyelids. Milia may be ablated, if desirable, by delicate incision and expression of the keratinous content. Lesions so treated do not recur, but if new lesions appear, they have to be treated in the same way. The operation is trivial and uncomplicated. There are no preventive measures.
Acanthosis nigricans: A skin condition characterized by dark thickened velvety patches, especially in the folds of skin in the axilla (armpit), groin and back of the neck. The condition is complex. It can occur with endocrine diseases such as Cushing disease, tumors of the pituitary, and diabetes mellitus. It is common in people who have insulin resistance — whose body is not responding correctly to the insulin that they make in their pancreas. Acanthosis nigricans also occurs with underlying malignancies (especially carcinomas of the vicera), administration of certain drugs, and as a genetic disorder inherited in an autosomal dominant manner.
What Can Be Done to Prevent Boils (Abscesses)?
Good hygiene and the regular use of antibacterial soaps can help to prevent bacteria from building up on the skin. This can reduce the chance for hair follicles to become infected and prevent the formation of boils. Your health-care practitioner may recommend special cleansers such as pHisoderm to further reduce the bacteria on the skin. When hair follicles on the back of the arms or around the thighs are continually inflamed, regular use of an abrasive brush (loofah brush) in the shower can be used to break up oil plugs and other buildup around hair follicles.
Boil Type: Hidradenitis Suppurativa
Hidradenitis suppurativa is a condition in which there are multiple abscesses that form under the armpits and often in the groin area. These areas are a result of local inflammation of the sweat glands. This form of skin infection is difficult to treat with antibiotics alone and typically requires a surgical procedure to remove the involved sweat glands in order to stop the skin inflammation.
Boil Type: Carbuncle
A carbuncle is an abscess in the skin caused by the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. It usually involves a group of hair follicles and is therefore larger than a typical furuncle, or boil. A carbuncle can have one or more openings onto the skin and may be associated with fever or chills.
Folliculitis Could Be an Early Warning
Folliculitis is an inflammation or infection of the hair follicles. This condition can develop into a boil and appears as numerous small red or pink little bumps at the hair follicles. Infection of the hair follicles can occur when the skin is disrupted or inflamed due to a number of conditions, including acne, skin wounds or injuries, friction from clothing, excessive sweating, or exposure to toxins.
What Causes Boils?
There are many causes of boils. Boils are usually caused by a type of bacteria called Staphylococcus (staph). Most staph infections develop into abscesses and can become serious very quickly. This germ can be present on normal skin and enters the body through tiny breaks in the skin or by traveling down a hair to the follicle. Some boils can be caused by an ingrown hair. Others can form as the result of a splinter or other foreign material that has become lodged in the skin that causes the infection to develop. Others boils, such as those of acne, are caused by plugged sweat glands that become infected.