Orthopedic services

The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)

Orthopedics, or orthopedic services, is the medical specialty that involves the treatment of the musculoskeletal system, which is made up of your body’s bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, and muscles.

Information
Any number of medical problems can affect the bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, and muscles.

Bone problems may include:

Bone deformities
Bone infections
Bone problems may include:
Bone tumors
Fractures
Need for amputation
Nonunions and malunions
Spinal deformities
Joint problems may include:

Arthritis
Bursitis
Dislocation
Joint pain
Joint swelling
Ligament tears
Common orthopedic-related diagnoses based on body part:

Ankle and foot:

Bunions
Fasciitis
Foot and ankle deformities
Fractures
Hammer toe
Heel pain
Heel spurs
Joint pain and arthritis
Sprains
Tarsal tunnel syndrome
Sesamoiditis
Hand and wrist

Fractures
Joint pain
Arthritis
Tendon or ligament injury
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Ganglion cyst
Rheumatoid arthritis
Tendinitis
Shoulder

Arthritis
Bursitis
Dislocation
Frozen shoulder (adhesive capsulitis)
Impingement syndrome
Loose or foreign bodies
Rotator cuff tear
Rotator cuff tendinitis
Separation
Torn labrum
SLAP tears
Knee:

Cartilage and meniscus injuries
Dislocation of the kneecap (patella)
Ligament sprains or tears (anterior cruciate, posterior cruciate, medial collateral and lateral collateral ligament tears)
Loose or foreign bodies
Osgood-Schlatter disease
Pain
Tendinitis
Elbow:

Arthritis
Bursitis
Dislocation or separation
Loose or foreign bodies
Pain
Tennis or golfers elbow (epicondylitis or tendinitis)
Elbow stiffness or contractures
Spine:

Herniated (slipped) disc
Infection of the spine
Injury to the spine
Scoliosis
Spinal stenosis
Spinal tumor
Fractures
Spinal cord injuries
SERVICES AND TREATMENTS

Imaging procedures can help diagnose or even treat many orthopedic conditions. Your doctor may order:

Arthrograms (joint x-ray)
Bone scans
Computed tomography (CT) scan
Discography
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan
X-rays
Sometimes, treatment involves injections of medicine into the painful area. This may involve:

Corticosteroid injections into joints, tendons and ligaments, and around the spine
Hyaluronic acid injection to help relieve arthritis pain
Surgical procedures used in the treatment of orthopedics include:

Amputation
Arthroscopic surgeries
Bunionectomy and hammer toe repair
Cartilage repair or resurfacing procedures
Cartilage surgery to knee
Fracture care
Joint replacement (arthroplasty)
Ligament reconstructions
Repair of torn ligaments and tendons
Spine surgery, including diskectomy, foraminotomy, laminectomy, and spinal fusion
Newer orthopedic services procedures include minimally invasive surgery techniques, advanced external fixation, and the use of bone graft substitutes and bone-fusing protein.

WHO IS INVOLVED

Orthopedic care often involves a team approach. Your team may include a doctor as well as a non-doctor specialist such as a physical therapist, as well as others.

Orthopedic surgeons receive 5 or more extra years of training in the care of disorders of the bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments.
Physical medicine and rehabilitation doctors have 4 or more extra years of training in this type of care after they graduated from medical school. They are also referred to as physiatrists. They do not perform surgery although they can give joint injections.
Sports medicine physicians are doctors with experience in sports medicine who have a primary specialty in family practice, internal medicine, emergency medicine, pediatrics, or physical medicine and rehabilitation. Most have 1-2 years of additional training in sports medicine through subspecialty programs in sports medicine. Sports medicine is a special branch of orthopedics designed to provide complete medical care to active people of all ages.
Other doctors that may be a part of the orthopedics team include:

Neurologists
Pain specialists
Primary care doctors
Psychiatrists
Non-doctor health professionals that may be a part of the orthopedics team include:

Athletic trainers
Counselors
Physical therapists
Psychologists
Social workers
Vocational workers

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